VA refers to the additional value of a commodity over the cost of commodities used to produce it from the previous stage of production. We use it to find a focus on key areas for innovation.

VE refers to an organized effort directed at optimizing a product's relationship between it's functional need(s) and the cost(s) to meet that need while meeting or exceeding quality requirements. It is a formal attempt to assure the highest value of a product by delivering all required functions at the lowest overall cost. We use it to identify specific solutions to detail problems.

 
To increase the value of all our concerned products by considering the function of individual items and the benefit of this function and balancing this against the costs incurred in delivering it.
 
To increase the value or decrease the cost.
 
 
Gather information
1. What is being done now?
Who is doing it?
What could it do?
What must it not do?
 
Measure
2. How will the alternatives be measured?
What are the alternate ways of meeting requirements?
What else can perform the desired function?
 
Analyze
3. What must be done?
What does it cost?
Generate
4. What else will do the job?
 
Evaluate
5. Which ideas are the best?
6. Develop and expand ideas
What are the impacts?
What is the cost?
What are the impacts?
What is the performance?
7. Present ideas
Sell alternatives
 
Cost comparison on different laminate materials:
Laminate Cost Comparison
FR-4
CEM-3
CEM-1
 
Cost comparison on different Surface Finishes:
Surface Finish Cost Comparison
Plated Gold
ENIG
Lead Free HASL
OSP
HASL
Immersion Silver
Bare Copper
 
Priority for choosing a finish:
Scope Factor
Cost VA/VE
End customer demand
Environmental RoHS/ REACH
Design skill sets Components used
Assembly method
Ease of Assembly
Application Environment
Durability
Shelf life
 
Cost comparison on different board thickness (including the cost of whole production respectively):
Board Thickness (mm)
Cost Comparison
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.5/ 1.6